After HIV enters a T-cell, three enzymes play essential roles in the life cycle of the virus. Reverse transcriptase copies the viral RNA genome and makes a DNA copy. Integrase inserts this viral DNA into the cell’s DNA. In the last steps of the viral life cycle, HIV protease cuts HIV proteins into their functional parts.
This animation was created based on atomic structures from the Protein Data Bank: Reverse Transcriptase: 3hvt, 3dlk, 3v6d, 3v4i, 3klg, 3v81 Integrase: 3os1, 3os0, 3oya Protease: 3pj6, 1kj4, 1hxb, 2az9, 2azc HIV Polyprotein, Capsid Protein, Matrix Protein: 1l6n, 2m8l, 1tam
Story: David S. Goodsell
Animation and Video Editing: Maria Voigt
Narration: Brian Hudson
Music: Gosta Berling
Recently, two independents works published in Nature Com and NSMB have shown the unexpected complexity of the repertoire of RNA-binding proteins in both S. cerevisiae and C. Elegans. Strikingly, metabolic enzymes and other enzymatic cores arise as enigmatic RNA-binders from yeast to human, suggesting either surprising and conserved roles of these proteins in post-transcriptional control of gene expression or a widespread function of RNA as regulator of enzymatic activities.
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The RNA-binding proteomes from yeast to man harbour conserved enigmRBPs.
Benedikt M. Beckmann, Rastislav Horos, Bernd Fischer, Alfredo Castello, Katrin Eichelbaum, Anne-Marie Alleaume, Thomas Schwarzl, Tomaž Curk, Sophia Foehr, Wolfgang Huber, Jeroen Krijgsveld & Matthias W. Hentze
Conserved mRNA-binding proteomes in eukaryotic organisms
Ana M Matia-González, Emma E Laing & André P Gerber
In the past century, few areas of biology advanced as much as our understanding of the pathways of intermediary metabolism. Initially considered unimportant in terms of gene regulation, crucial cellular fate changes, cell differentiation, or malignant transformation are now known to involve ‘metabolic remodeling’ with profound changes in the expression of many metabolic enzyme genes. This review focuses on the recent identification of RNA-binding activity of numerous metabolic enzymes. We discuss possible roles of this unexpected second activity in feedback gene regulation (‘moonlighting’) and/or in the control of enzymatic function. We also consider how metabolism-driven post-translational modifications could regulate enzyme-RNA interactions. Thus, RNA emerges as a new partner of metabolic enzymes with far-reaching possible consequences to be unraveled in the future.
In the last issue of the Biochemist (the journal of the Biochemical society) is focus on RNA. The different reviews, written by leading RNA scientists, give an overview of the function of ribozymes, novel initiation codons and RNA modifications in RNA biology. In addition, this issue provides an comprehensive description of the mechanisms of RNA silencing in plants, the emergent roles of mitochondrial RNAs and chromosome silencing by Xist non-coding RNA. We have contributed to it with a snapshot in our current knowledge in RNA-binding proteins and the news avenues of research that aroused from the HeLa and HEK293 mRNA interactomes (Castello et al., Cell 2012 and Baltz et al., Mol Cell, 2012).
For more information visit: http://www.biochemist.org/bio/
RNA biology is orchestrated by the interplay of RNAs with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) within dynamic ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). As a postdoctoral fellow in Matthias Hentze’s laboratory (EMBL), I developed a new method for comprehensive identification of RBPs in living cells, which we named “mRNA interactome capture” (Castello et al., Nat Prot., 2013). Applied to HeLa cells, this protocol revealed 860 high-confidence RBPs, adding hundreds of novel members to the previously known atlas of RBPs (Castello et al., Cell, 2012). The HeLa mRNA interactome uncovered unanticipated links between RNA biology and intermediary metabolism, the cellular redox state, antiviral response, and human diseases (Castello et al., Trends in genetics, 2013). I will apply new methods built on “mRNA interactome capture” to investigate the role of RBPs in infection and disease.